Coffee

Uses

Botanical names:
Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora

Parts Used & Where Grown

Coffee is grown extensively throughout the world for its seeds (or beans), especially in the warm regions of the Central and South America, Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands.
What Are Star Ratings?

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Used for Why
3 Stars
Hypertension
140–300 mg per day
Extracts of green, unroasted coffee that are high in chlorogenic acids might help lower high blood pressure.
Coffee beans contain chlorogenic acids, biologically active polyphenols that appear to have blood pressure–lowering and other positive health effects. Since roasting coffee beans may degrade their chlorogenic acids, extracts of green unroasted coffee beans have been investigated for their potential to lower high blood pressure and improve metabolic disturbances. A meta-analysis of results from nine clinical trials indicates green coffee bean extract in doses lower than 400 mg per day can reduce high blood pressure.
3 Stars
Obesity
3 to 4 cups of coffee or 180 to 200 mg of green coffee extract per day
Coffee from roasted coffee beans and green coffee extract have both been shown to support weight loss.
Active compounds found in green and roasted coffee beans, such as caffeine, chlorogenic acids (antioxidant polyphenols), and prebiotic fibers, may contribute to beneficial effects on metabolism. A comprehensive review of the research indicates drinking three to four cups of coffee daily has a positive impact on metabolic health and lowers the risk of death from any cause. Green coffee beans are thought to have greater potential to support weight loss due to their higher chlorogenic acid content compared to roasted coffee beans. Meta-analyses of 15–16 controlled clinical trials indicate green coffee extract has small weight- and waist circumference-reducing effects in people with overweight and obesity.
1 Star
Type 2 Diabetes
Amount providing 400 to 450 mg chlorogenic acid daily
Drinking either regular or decaffeinated coffee has been associated with reduced type 2 diabetes risk in several studies.
Preliminary research has identified a correlation between drinking either regular or decaffeinated coffee and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Test tube studies suggest that chlorogenic acid, a primary constituent found in coffee and in unroasted green coffee extract, may inhibit glucose production by the liver, which could theoretically lead to lower blood glucose levels. An animal study found that green coffee extract also prevented the reduction in insulin sensitivity caused by a high-fat diet. A double-blind trial found that healthy people who drank a sweetened coffee beverage containing green coffee extract (providing 400 to 450 mg of chlorogenic acids) had lower blood glucose levels during the following two hours compared to when they drank the same coffee beverage without added green coffee extract. However, no trials in people with type 2 diabetes have been performed.

Traditional Use (May Not Be Supported by Scientific Studies)

Coffee, in the form of a brew of ground roasted beans, has been a popular stimulating beverage for almost one thousand years. Green coffee beans may have been eaten fresh by African cultures prior to 1000 A.D. Obtaining the stimulating effects of caffeine appears to be the primary reason for coffee consumption throughout history.

How It Works

Botanical names:
Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora

How It Works

Green coffee beans contain a variety of potentially healthful components, including chlorogenic acids and related compounds,1, 2 which have antioxidant and other protective effects on cell functions.3, 4 Some of these compounds may be converted by intestinal bacteria into different compounds with similar effects.5 Chlorogenic acids and related compounds found in green coffee extract also have stabilizing effects on blood vessel function,6, 7 and regulating effects on body fat metabolism.8 However, the typical roasting of coffee beans may change these compounds in a way that makes some of these effects less potent.9

How to Use It

Green coffee extracts are typically standardized to contain 50% chlorogenic acids. Amounts of green coffee extracts that provide from 140 to 480 mg chlorogenic acids daily are usually taken.

Interactions

Botanical names:
Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora

Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

At the time of writing, there were no well-known supplement or food interactions with this supplement.

Interactions with Medicines

As of the last update, we found no reported interactions between this supplement and medicines. It is possible that unknown interactions exist. If you take medication, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a new supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.
The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers' package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

Side Effects

Botanical names:
Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora

Side Effects

No serious side effects have been reported in human studies of green coffee extract. However, people who have allergies or other sensitivities to roasted coffee might also be sensitive to green coffee extract. Some green coffee extracts may contain small amounts of caffeine, but at typical daily intakes this amount will be much less than that found in one cup of regular coffee.

References

1. Alonso-Salces RM, Serra F, Reniero F, Héberger K. Botanical and geographical characterization of green coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora): chemometric evaluation of phenolic and methylxanthine contents. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57:4224-35.

2. Farah A, Monteiro M, Donangelo CM, Lafay S. Chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract are highly bioavailable in humans. J Nutr 2008;138:2309-15.

3. Iwai K, Kishimoto N, Kakino Y, et al. In vitro antioxidative effects and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of seven hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives in green coffee beans. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:4893-8.

4. Glei M, Kirmse A, Habermann N, et al. Bread enriched with green coffee extract has chemoprotective and antigenotoxic activities in human cells. Nutr Cancer 2006;56:182-92.

5. Del Rio D, Stalmach A, Calani L, Crozier A. Bioavailability of coffee chlorogenic acids and green tea flavan-3-ols. Nutrients 2010;2:820-33 [review].

6. Ochiai R, Jokura H, Suzuki A, et al. Green coffee bean extract improves human vasoreactivity. Hypertens Res 2004;27:731-7.

7. Zhao Y, Wang J, Ballevre O, et al. Antihypertensive effects and mechanisms of chlorogenic acids. Hypertens Res 2012;35:370-4 [review].

8. Cho AS, Jeon SM, Kim MJ, et al. Chlorogenic acid exhibits anti-obesity property and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced-obese mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:937-43.

9. Yamaguchi T, Chikama A, Mori K, et al. Hydroxyhydroquinone-free coffee: a double-blind, randomized controlled dose-response study of blood pressure. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2008;18:408-14.

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