COVID-19: Vaccine | Testing | Self-assessment | Patient & Visitor Safety | Visitor Policy
Emergency Room Wait Times
Home > Living Well > Health Library > Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy for Cancer (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.
Rationale for HSCT
Blood and marrow transplantation, or HSCT, is a procedure that involves infusion of hematopoietic stem cells (along with hematopoietic progenitor cells) to reconstitute the hematopoietic system of a patient. The infusion of hematopoietic stem cells generally follows a preparative regimen consisting of agents designed to do the following:
HSCT is currently used in the:
This summary focuses on the use of HSCT in the treatment of childhood malignancies.
Autologous Versus Allogeneic HSCT
The two major HSCT approaches currently in use are the following:
An autologous transplant treats cancer by exposing patients to high-dose therapy with the intent of overcoming chemotherapy resistance in tumor cells, followed by infusion of the patient's previously stored hematopoietic stem cells. The transplant can be performed in a single procedure or tandem sequential procedures.
Allogeneic transplant approaches to cancer treatment also may involve high-dose therapy, but because of immunologic differences between the donor and recipient, an additional graft-versus-tumor or graft-versus-leukemia treatment effect can occur. Although autologous approaches are associated with less short-term mortality, many malignancies are resistant to even high doses of chemotherapy and/or involve the bone marrow, thus requiring allogeneic approaches for optimal outcome.
Determining When HSCT Is Indicated: Comparison of HSCT and Chemotherapy Outcomes
Because the outcomes using chemotherapy and HSCT treatments have been changing over time, these approaches should be compared regularly to continually redefine optimal therapy for a given patient. For some diseases, randomized trials or intent-to-treat trials using an HLA-matched sibling donor have established the benefit of HSCT by direct comparison.[1,2] However, for very high-risk patients, such as those with early relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, randomized trials have not been feasible because of investigator bias.[3,4]
In general, HSCT typically benefits only children at high risk of relapse with standard chemotherapy approaches. Accordingly, treatment schemas that accurately identify these high-risk patients and offer HSCT if appropriate allogeneic donors are available are the preferred approach for many diseases. Less well-established, higher-risk approaches to HSCT, such as haploidentical transplantation, are generally reserved for only the very highest-risk patients. However, these higher-risk approaches are becoming safer and more efficacious and are increasingly used interchangeably with fully matched allogeneic approaches.[6,7,8,9] (Refer to the Haploidentical HSCT section of the PDQ summary on Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for more information.)
When comparisons of similar patients treated with HSCT or chemotherapy are made in the setting where randomized or intent-to-treat studies are not feasible, the following issues should be considered:
To account for time-to-transplant bias, the chemotherapy comparator arm should include only patients who maintained remission until the median time to HSCT. The HSCT comparator arm should also include only patients who achieved the initial remission mentioned above and maintained that remission until the time of HSCT.
High-risk and intermediate-risk patient groups should not be combined because a benefit of HSCT in the high-risk group can be masked when outcomes are similar to those achieved in the intermediate-risk group.
Physician bias, for or against HSCT, is difficult to control for or detect. The effects of access to HSCT and therapeutic bias on outcomes of pediatric malignancies for which HSCT may be indicated have been poorly studied.
For more information about pediatric HSCT, refer to the following PDQ summaries:
Use our advanced clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are now enrolling patients. The search can be narrowed by location of the trial, type of treatment, name of the drug, and other criteria. General information about clinical trials is also available.
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
This summary was reformatted.
This summary was renamed from Childhood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ® - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Purpose of This Summary
This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and cellular therapy in treating pediatric cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians in the care of their patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.
Reviewers and Updates
This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:
Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which Board members evaluate the strength of the evidence in the published articles and determine how the article should be included in the summary.
The lead reviewers for Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy for Cancer are:
Any comments or questions about the summary content should be submitted to Cancer.gov through the NCI website's Email Us. Do not contact the individual Board Members with questions or comments about the summaries. Board members will not respond to individual inquiries.
Levels of Evidence
Some of the reference citations in this summary are accompanied by a level-of-evidence designation. These designations are intended to help readers assess the strength of the evidence supporting the use of specific interventions or approaches. The PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board uses a formal evidence ranking system in developing its level-of-evidence designations.
Permission to Use This Summary
PDQ is a registered trademark. Although the content of PDQ documents can be used freely as text, it cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ cancer information summary unless it is presented in its entirety and is regularly updated. However, an author would be permitted to write a sentence such as "NCI's PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks succinctly: [include excerpt from the summary]."
The preferred citation for this PDQ summary is:
PDQ® Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board. PDQ Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy for Cancer. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated <MM/DD/YYYY>. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/childhood-cancers/hp-stem-cell-transplant. Accessed <MM/DD/YYYY>. [PMID: 26389503]
Images in this summary are used with permission of the author(s), artist, and/or publisher for use within the PDQ summaries only. Permission to use images outside the context of PDQ information must be obtained from the owner(s) and cannot be granted by the National Cancer Institute. Information about using the illustrations in this summary, along with many other cancer-related images, is available in Visuals Online, a collection of over 2,000 scientific images.
Based on the strength of the available evidence, treatment options may be described as either "standard" or "under clinical evaluation." These classifications should not be used as a basis for insurance reimbursement determinations. More information on insurance coverage is available on Cancer.gov on the Managing Cancer Care page.
More information about contacting us or receiving help with the Cancer.gov website can be found on our Contact Us for Help page. Questions can also be submitted to Cancer.gov through the website's Email Us.
Last Revised: 2022-02-04
Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.
Disclaimer: The information contained in this website, and its associated websites, is provided as a benefit to the local community, and the Internet community in general; it does not constitute medical advice. We try to provide quality information, but we make no claims, promises or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the information contained in or linked to this website and its associated sites. As medical advice must be tailored to the specific circumstances of each patient and healthcare is constantly changing, nothing provided herein should be used as a substitute for the advice of a competent physician. Furthermore, in providing this service, Adventist HealthCare does not condone or support all of the content covered in this site. As an Adventist health care organization, Adventist HealthCare acts in accordance with the ethical and religious directives for Adventist health care services.
Find an Adventist HealthCare affiliated doctor by calling our FREE physician referral service at 800-642-0101 or by searching our online physician directory.
Set Your Location
Setting your location helps us to show you nearby providers and locations based on your healthcare needs.